Contributors: KLO and JHYW designed the study and drafted the manuscript. KLO, MM, KAR, NH, XFP, RM, AT, AK, IHdB, DSS, DM, and JHY contributed to the development of study proposal and protocol. MM, CMR, HK, LMS, ACvW, JMG, EKH, YYC, KLC, AMF, RNL, FI, NGF, NJW, AB, SJ, OK, MBS, VDdM, JT, MU, JL, NT, WSH, KY, YH, TN, TT, LF, SBa, JKV, AV, TJ, AT, AP, SBu, PSS, MKS, SSR, MYT, ACW, MLaa, MLan, XY, LS, HL, XL, CN, JA, UR, LL, MLG, CS, and CH contributed to cohort specific data (principal investigators, analysts, associates, and trainees). KLO and LH performed the pooled analysis of cohort data. KLO, MM, KAR, XFP, WSH, FQ, AT, AK, IhdB, DSS, DM, and JHYW contributed to the primary writing team. All authors contributed to the data interpretation, critically revised the manuscript and approved the final version for publication. KLO is the guarantor of this manuscript and accepts full responsibility for the work and the conduct of the study, had access to the data, and controlled the decision to publish. The corresponding author attests that all listed authors meet authorship criteria and that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.
Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at and declare: support from Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship and the University of New South Wales Safety Net Fellowship for the submitted work; MM reports research funding from Resolve to Save Lives, World Health Organisation and North western University, and support as invited speaker in the Nordic Dairy Congress 2022. CMR and LMS report research funding from the US National Institute of Health (NIH). CMR reports participation on the Data Safety Monitoring Boards of the SUPER and ADEPT trials and leadership role as associate editor of Diabetes Care. ACvW reports research funding from Jaap Schouten Foundation. JMG reports research funding from Jaap Schouten Foundation, EU Horizon 2020, and Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports, The Netherlands, and leadership role as the Vice President of the Dutch Health Council. EKH reports research funding from Dutch Kidney Foundation. FI and NGF receive the MRC Epidemiology Unit core support. NGF reports research fundings from the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre Theme on Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle. JT declares conference support from the University of Antioquia, Colombia and possession of stocks from Orion Pharma. MU declares possession of stocks from Orion Pharma. WSH declares possession of stock in OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC (a laboratory that offers blood fatty acid testing to healthcare providers, researchers and consumers). PSS reports research funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and honoraria from Biogen Australia and Roche Australia. ACW reports research funding from the US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service, NIH, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association and Hass Avocado Board Avocado Nutrition Research Center. JA has received research honoraria for lectures from AstraZeneca and Novartis, and has participated in the advisory board for AstraZeneca and Boerhinger Ingelheim, unrelated to the present study. UR reports research funding from Swedish Research Council Forma and Swedish Diabetes Foundation. RM reports research funding from the US NIH, Gates Foundation, Nestle and Danone, and consulting fees from Development Initiatives with leadership role as chair of the Independent Expert Group, Global Nutrition Report. AT declares as co-chair of ClinGen Gout Genetic Curation Panel and reports research funding from the US National Institute of Health; AK reports research funding from the German Research Foundation. DM reports research funding from the US NIH, the Gates Foundation, The Rockefeller Foundation, Vail Innovative Global Research, and the Kaiser Permanente Fund at East Bay Community Foundation; personal fees from Acasti Pharma and Barilla; scientific advisory board, Beren Therapeutics, Brightseed, Calibrate, Elysium Health, Filtricine, HumanCo, Instacart, January Inc., Perfect Day, Tiny Organics, and (ended) Day Two, Discern Dx, and Season Health; stock ownership in Calibrate and HumanCo; and chapter royalties from UpToDate. No other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work were reported.